2021.12.06 14:43 Abatirabadai Wushisheshishire sauce
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2021.12.06 14:43 AFKNanoBotYT LetsPlay - Watch Dogs: Legion Playthrough (Part 17)
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2021.12.06 14:43 Liberosist Fanciful Endgame
Vitalik has a brilliant article about the Endgame for blockchains. I’m obviously biased, but this may be my single favourite piece of writing about blockchains this year. While Vitalik is an actual blockchain researcher (and IMO, the very best our industry has) I’m just here for shits & giggles, and I can have wild dreams. So, I thought I’d take Vitalik’s pragmatic endgame to the realm of wishful thinking. Be aware that a lot of what I say may not even be possible, may just be a mad person’s rambling, and definitely not for many years.
I’d highly recommend reading some of my earlier posts here: Rollups, data availability layers & modular blockchains: introductory meta post | by Polynya | Oct, 2021 | Medium. In this post, I’ll assume that you’re fully convinced about the modular architecture.
Decentralizing the execution layer It’s pretty obvious that a fraud-proven (optimistic rollup) or validity-proven (ZK/validity rollup) execution layer is the optimal solution for blockchain transaction execution. You get a) high computational efficiency, b) data compression and c) VM flexibility.
Today, barring Polygon Hermez, most rollups use a single sequencer, or at least sequencers run by permissioned entities. A properly implemented rollup still gives users the opportunity to exit from the settlement layer if the rollup fails or censors, so you still inherit high security. However, this is inconvenient and could lead to temporary censorship. So, how can rollups have the highest level of censorship resistance, liveness or finality?
Today, high-throughput monolithic blockchains make a simple trade-off: have a smaller set of block producers. Likewise, rollups can do the same, but they have an incredible advantage. While monolithic blockchains have to offer censorship resistance, liveness & safety permanently, rollups only need to offer censorship resistance & liveness ephemerally! Today, this can be anywhere between 2 minutes to an hour depending on the rollup, but as activity increases, I expect this to drop to a few seconds over time. Needing only to offer CR & liveness for a few seconds has huge advantages: you can have a small fraction of block producers than even the highest-TPS monolithic blockchain, meaning you can have way higher throughput and way lower finality. But at the same time, you also have way higher CR & liveness per unit time, and you inherit security from whatever’s the most secure settlement layer! It’s the best of all worlds.
Further rollups need not use inefficient mechanisms like BFT proof-of-stake, because they have an ephemeral 1-of-N trust model: you only need one honest sequencer to be live at a given time. They can build more efficient solutions better suited to ephemeral. You can have sequencer auctions, like Polygon Hermez already has. You can have rotation mechanisms. I.e. have a large block producer set, but only require a smaller subset to be active for a given epoch, and then rotate between them. Eventually, I expect to see sequencing & proving mechanisms built around identity and reputation instead of stake. There’s a lot more to say about this topic, such as checkpoints, recursing proofs etc. But I’ll stop for now. Speaking of recursive proofs…
Rapid innovation at the execution layer One of the greatest challenges for blockchains has been upgradability. Analogies like “it’s like upgrading a space shuttle while it’s still in flight” are apt. This has made upgrading blockchains extremely difficult and extremely slow. The more popular a blockchain is, the harder it becomes to upgrade.
Processing img 08ppd50nly381...
With a modular architecture, the permanent fate of the rollup no longer depends on the upgradability. The settlement layer contains all relevant proofs and the latest state, while the data availability layer contains all transaction data in compressed form. In short, the full state of the rollup can be reconstructed irrespective of the rollup itself!
This frees the rollup to innovate much faster — within reason. We’ll see MEV mitigation techniques like timelocks & VDFs, censorship resistance & liveness mechanisms like described above, novel VMs & programming languages, advanced account abstraction, innovative fee models (see: Immutable X and how they can have zero gas fees), high-frequency state expiry, and much more! We could even see the revival of application-specific rollups, which are fine-tuned for a specific purpose. (Indeed, with dYdX, Immutable X, Sorare, Worldcoin, Reddit, we’re arguably already seeing this.)
Recursion & atomic composability: a single ZKP for a thousand chains This is totally speculative, but hear me out! We’re looking far enough out into the future that I expect all/most rollups to be ZKRs. At that point, proving costs will be negligible. Just to be clear, because so many seem to misunderstand: ORs are great, and have a big role to play for the next couple of years.
Even the highest throughput rollups will have their limits. As demonstrated above, a high-throughput ZKR will necessarily be way higher throughput than the highest throughput monolithic chain. A single ZKR remains full composability over multiple DA layers. But there’s a limit to how many transactions a single “chain” can execute and prove. So, we’ll need multiple ZKRs. Now, to be very clear, it’s pretty obvious that cross-ZKR interoperability is way better than cross-L1. We have seen smart techniques like DeFi Pooling or dAMM — which even lets multiple ZKRs share liquidity!
But this is not quite perfect. So, what would it take to have full atomic composability across multiple ZKRs? Consider this: you can have 10 ZKRs that are living besides each other. All of these talk to a single “Composer ZKR”, which resolves to a single composed state with a single proof. This single proof is then verified on the settlement layer. Internally, it might be 10 different ZKRs, but to the settlement layer, it’ll all appear as a single ZKR.
You can build further ZKRs on top of each of these 10 ZKRs, and with recursive proofs, it’ll head down the tree. However, these “child ZKRs” will probably have to give up atomic composability. It may make a lot of sense for “App ZKRs” or otherwise ZKRs with lower activity though.
Of course, not all ZKRs will follow the same standard, so you can have multiple “Composer ZKR” networks. And, of course, standalone ZKRs will continue to be a thing for a vast majority of ZKR networks that are not hitting the throughput limits.
But here’s where things get exciting! So, you could have all of those “child ZKRs”, “standalone ZKRs”, “multiple ZKRs within one composable ZKR network” — all of that can be settled on a validity proven execution layer, all verified with a single ZKP — made by a thousand recursions — at the end of it all! As we know, zkEVM is on Ethereum’s roadmap, and Mina offers a potential validity proven settlement layer sooner.
Processing img gycamk8lly381...
One final word: because ZKPs are either fixed or poly-log, it barely matters the number of transactions they prove. A single settlement can realistically handle thousands of ZKRs with ~infinite TPS. On Twitter, I recently calculated Ethereum today is already capable of settling over 1,000 ZKRs. So, throughput is not the bottleneck for settlement layers. They just need the most secure, the most decentralized, the most robust coordinator of liquidity and arbiter of truth.
This section is very far-fetched, to be sure! But it’s worth dreaming about. Who knows, maybe some day, the wizards at the various ZK teams will make this fantasy real.
Vibrant data availability ecosystem The great advantage of a modular execution layer is data compression. Even basic compression techniques will lead to ~10x data efficiency. More advanced techniques or highly compressible applications like dYdX can lead to >100x gains.
But the 10x-100x gains are just the start here. The real gains come from modularizing data availability.
Unlike monolithic chains, data availability capacities increase with decentralization. With sharding and/or data availability sampling, the more validators/nodes you have, the more data you can process, effectively inverting the blockchain trilemma.
Furthermore, data availability is the easiest & cheapest resource, by several orders of magnitude. No SSDs, no high-end CPUs, GPUs etc. required. You just need cheap hard drives. You could attach a Raspberry Pi to a 16 TB hard drive: this setup will cost $400. So, what kind of scale can this system handle? Assume we set history expiry at 1 year, this is 100,000 dYdX TPS. Though, this is purely illustrative, as it’s likely we hit other bottlenecks like bandwidth too. Which, I might add, are 10x-100x lesser than monolithic blockchains due to the data compression that has already happened at the execution layer.
Expired historical data only needs a 1-of-N trust assumption, and we have multiple projects like block explorers, Portal and The Graph working on these. Still, I’d like to see the DA layers incentivize this for a bulletproof system.
Interestingly, volition type setups can also work with 1-of-N trust assumptions — so I look forward to novel, permissionless DA solutions. Here’s a fabulous post on StarkNet Shamans about how StarkNet plans to achieve this.
But it doesn’t end here, you can parallelize data availability in various ways! For example, Ethereum’s endgame is 1,024 data shards. With data availability sampling, you can go a long way before requiring sharding. Really, we’re scratching the surface here, and I haven’t even mentioned the likes of Arweave or Filecoin. I expect to see tons of innovation, an in short, we have the potential for millions of TPS here, today!
Endgame The more I learn about modular architectures, the more blatantly obvious this progression seems from monolithic blockchains. It’s not an incremental gain, it’s a >1 million x improvement over today’s L1s. It’s a bigger leap forward than going from 56k dialup straight to Gigabit fibre. Of course, it’ll take a lot of work with hundreds of cooperating teams several years to realize this vision. But as always, it remains the only way the blockchain industry will scale to global ubiquity.
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2021.12.06 14:43 Yungestflexxer Borderline coke addict!?
So I have been doing Coke now for 6 years but only recreational on the weekends. Started of when going down to the pub after a few beers me and my pals would get a bag dropped, it was fun while it lasted but all good things must come to an end.
Fast forward a few years I have a girlfriend who also uses coke, I don’t even have to have a drink these days to suggest getting some in, I have stints where I have 2 weeks sober then get back on it then have a weekend off it then back to getting on it! I know it doesn’t seem like a lot compared to other users but most weekends I am using at least one night over the weekend, and waste the whole day after and feel depressed.
I wouldn’t even bother with it that much but me and my girl just end up fuxking all night and it’s really good at the time, the sex on it is amazing which always makes me want to get a bag on a Friday and have a wild night..but now we just get paranoid looking out the curtains and being really really quiete like whispering in my own house in case the neighbours hear us, it’s good for like the first hour or so then the paranoia creeps in.
I have a good job and my own place and want to stop this nonsense, spending about £400/500 a month on it and I feel like I’ve had my fun, time to move on I need some motivation to stop or some real experiences from others that have been in the same situation please!Every weekend I say I’m never touching it again but it always happens..
Addicted/borderline addicted. I don’t know. my consumption isn’t daily but it’s more than I ever wanted it to be
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2021.12.06 14:43 _Hannah_x3 What do you think about this Outfit? First one i bought for myself 🙂.
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2021.12.06 14:43 FatalityARK ARK SERVER NO OFICIAL FarmX5 ExpX3 TameX10
I've recently opened a server, this is the third time it's been opened. I have experience in running ARK servers but we need to get more people active to grow as we were before. We used to do events and a bit of everything. It has support from the admins with ticketing etc.
I encourage you to check it out and go to the dc for more information if you want.
STEAM SERVER IP: 188.8.131.52:28027 SERVER NAME: ESP ESPARTANOS PVP FarmX5 ExpX3 TameX10 SALSEO etc
Translated with www.DeepL.com/Translator (free version)
submitted by FatalityARK to ARK [link] [comments]
2021.12.06 14:43 PartyIssue2732 🚀MetaSaitama 🚀 |Private Sale Is Live! 🔥 KYC In Progress 🚀Next 1000x🚀
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🚀 LP LOCKED : https://deeplock.io/lock/0x191712202e2b37486e2e0800b3835bb3340115b5
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2021.12.06 14:43 ThatDudeYallKnow ✅$8 entry fee. (26,700vids, 200+ mega links in chat). Telegram user is @WokenDemon ,hit me on there if account is removed. ⭐️🙌🏿BEST GROUPCHAT🙌🏿⭐️ONLY HMU PAYMENT READY
|submitted by ThatDudeYallKnow to Dopechick69of [link] [comments]|
2021.12.06 14:43 worsnop9834 Anyone know when Foul Breeze was recorded?
2021.12.06 14:43 Sovv081 What are some of the worst band names you know of?
2021.12.06 14:43 _comfortably-numb_ Get 2 free stocks from Firstrade worth up to $400! No deposit required. (USA)
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2021.12.06 14:43 DylanSavage14 NFT Giveaway- See Comment
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2021.12.06 14:43 AutoNewspaperAdmin [Op-Ed] - For the millions pushed by Covid-19 into poverty, growth rates don’t mean much | South China Morning Post
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2021.12.06 14:43 lastarlette Deathmatch mode would be nicer saving us these three seconds...
I don't get it. In warm-up there's no respawn time and then when the deathmatch starts you get to wait 3 seconds to to spawn. Why? I believe it would be really nice to remove this.
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2021.12.06 14:43 SnooOwls487 If Dimension Shifter is chained to Lancea, can cards be banished? And vice versa?
2021.12.06 14:43 Andras_M The Popular Family Safety App Life360 Is Selling Precise Location Data on Its Tens of Millions of Users
2021.12.06 14:43 heathtata in Medal of Honor: Allied Assault(2002), Soldiers might cover the grenades with their bodies
(Dog: what just happen?)
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2021.12.06 14:43 Sh1zaru [IC] KS65
After months of designing and prototyping we're finally ready to present our IC for the KS65. The KS65 has a distinctive design and was engineered with ease of use in mind whilst maintaining a premium feel.
By filling in the IC you can still determine:
2021.12.06 14:43 PoniesPlayingPoker Spotted an [Edsel Ranger] on my road trip!
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2021.12.06 14:43 ifuckingloveair WOOOOOOO YEAH BABY THATS WHAT IVE BEEN WAITING FOR
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2021.12.06 14:43 Specific-Sock-4959 Cincinnati is going to be Bama's easiest win all year
This game is going to be a complete blowout, I'll be surprised if we only beat them by 40 points. Cincinnati is a garbage team that plays against other garbage schools, they don't belong in the CFP, they should have been replaced with a good team like Ole Miss or Baylor, also Group of 5 teams should never be allowed in the CFP or the Top 25 for that matter. Cincinnati is a god awful team that would struggle to even beat 1 SEC team, Vanderbilt could easily beat them by at least 2 TDS. Hopefully once Cincinnati loses it will teach the Committee to never let awful Group of 5 teams into the CFP. Unless you play real schools you shouldn't be ranked. Bama just destroyed Georgia! Cincinnati beat an awful Houston team by only 15 points, Alabama would have beaten Houston by at least 80. Alabama will wins this game 87-0, and after this game people will realize that Group of 5 teams are all complete garbage, it is 100% impossible for a good SEC team to lose to Group of 5 team.
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2021.12.06 14:43 jemasdfsdfsd 🐶 FlokiVengers 🐶| New Heroes NFT Token 💥 Marketplace & NFT Launch Incoming ✅ Doxxed Dev | BUSD Rewards | Join the Resistance! 🔥
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2021.12.06 14:43 BlameTag We wrote a song for people stuck in retail this holiday season!
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2021.12.06 14:43 anonymous_lurker19 My mom keeps threatening to kick me out of the house
I’m 35 and have never worked a day in my life (mommy has money so why should I bother?) I also already HAVE a job, but she doesn’t believe moderating subreddits is physical labor (I get sweaty when people make fun of me)
That being said, she came into my room today and started bitching for no reason. Stuff like “I’VE WASTED MY ENTIRE LIFE ON YOU!” Blah blah blah. I told her that I refuse to work until the pay is good. She has the balls to bring up “YOU TURNED DOWN A $25/HR JOB YOUR UNCLE OFFERED YOU YESTERDAY!” To which I wittingly replied that anything under $300/hr is slave labor. (I’m very clever) I also informed her that me and my reddit friends (I call them homies in mod chat) are currently partaking in the Black Friday Blackout. SHE DIDNT EVEN KNOW WHAT THAT WAS!!!
I carefully explained to her that me and a couple hundred other redditors with no jobs are refusing to work for two weeks as well as not buying any funko pops. I explained that this will collapse the global financial market and will result in the government giving everyone $10,000 a week forever.
Despite my heroic deeds, my mom proceeded to call me “an absolute mistake” and smashed my $8000 gaming PC. She then told me to leave her house so that she can enjoy “what little time I have left on this earth” and threatened to call the cops.
I’m standing outside now. How should I handle this?
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2021.12.06 14:43 Sonya_student would you like to know what I could do with you with my lips?
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